Below you will find full referencing for the Mencap research and statistics pages.

 

Leisure references

  • Bandura, A. (2004). Health promotion by social cognitive means. Health education & behavior31(2), 143-164.
  • Beart, S., Hawkins, D., Kroese, B. S., Smithson, P., & Tolosa, I. (2001). Barriers to accessing leisure opportunities for people with learning disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(4), 133-138.
  • Bedimo-Rung, A. L., Mowen, A. J., & Cohen, D. A. (2005). The significance of parks to physical activity and public health: a conceptual model. American journal of preventive medicine28(2), 159-168.
  • Bishop‐Fitzpatrick, L., Smith DaWalt, L., Greenberg, J. S., & Mailick, M. R. (2017). Participation in recreational activities buffers the impact of perceived stress on quality of life in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Autism Research10(5), 973-982.
  • Bourassa, K. J., Memel, M., Woolverton, C., & Sbarra, D. A. (2017). Social participation predicts cognitive functioning in aging adults over time: comparisons with physical health, depression, and physical activity. Aging & mental health21(2), 133-146.
  • Calvert, D. (2014). ‘A person with some sort of learning disability’: the aetiological narrative and public construction of Susan Boyle. Disability & Society29(1), 101-114.
  • Chinn, D. (2017). Learning how to be (a) patient: visual analysis of accessible health information leaflets for people with intellectual disabilities. Disability & Society, 32(10), 1485-1509.
  • Chien, C. W., Rodger, S., & Copley, J. (2017). Differences in patterns of physical participation in recreational activities between children with and without intellectual and developmental disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities67, 9-18.
  • Darcy, S., & Dowse, L. (2013). In search of a level playing field–the constraints and benefits of sport participation for people with intellectual disability. Disability & Society28(3), 393-407.
  • Department for Work and pensions (2017) DWP Annual Report and Acounts 2016 – 2017. Accessed on 27 November 2017 https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/624319/dwp-annual-report-and-accounts-2016-2017.pdf
  • Dowling, S., Hubert, J., White, S., & Hollins, S. (2006). Bereaved adults with intellectual disabilities: a combined randomized controlled trial and qualitative study of two community‐based interventions. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research50(4), 277-287.
  • Duncan, D., Matson, J. L., Bamburg, J. W., Cherry, K. E., & Buckley, T. (1999). The relationship of self-injurious behavior and aggression to social skills in persons with severe and profound learning disability. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 20(6), 441-448.
  • Emerson, E., & Hatton, C. (2008). Estimating Future Need for Adult Social Care for People with Learning Disabilities in England.
  • Fattore, T., Mason, J., & Watson, E. (2017). Activities as Autonomy and Competence: The Meaning and Experience of Leisure for Well-Being. In Children’s Understandings of Well-being (pp. 147-178). Springer Netherlands.
  • Fitzgerald, H., & Long, J. (2017). Integration or special provision?. Sport, Leisure and Social Justice, 126.
  • Green, P. (2017). A behavioural approach to helping an older adult with a learning disability and mild cognitive impairment overcome depression. British Journal of Learning Disabilities45(1), 81-88.
  • Gresham, F. M. (1992). Social skills and learning disabilities: Causal, concomitant, or correlational?. School Psychology Review.
  • Hassan, N. (2017). ‘Putting music on’: everyday leisure activities, choice‐making and person‐centred planning in a supported living scheme. British Journal of Learning Disabilities45(1), 73-80.
  • Howarth, S., Morris, D., Newlin, M., & Webber, M. (2016). Health and social care interventions which promote social participation for adults with learning disabilities: a review. British Journal of Learning Disabilities44(1), 3-15.
  • Kavale, K. A., & Mostert, M. P. (2004). Social skills interventions for individuals with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27(1), 31-43.
  • Majnemer, A., Shevell, M., Law, M., Birnbaum, R., Chilingaryan, G., Rosenbaum, P., & Poulin, C. (2008). Participation and enjoyment of leisure activities in school‐aged children with cerebral palsy. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology50(10), 751-758.
  • McConkey, R., Dowling, S., Hassan, D., & Menke, S. (2013). Promoting social inclusion through unified sports for youth with intellectual disabilities: a five‐nation study. Journal of intellectual disability research57(10), 923-935.
  • Merrells, J., Buchanan, A., & Waters, R. (2017). “We feel left out”: Experiences of social inclusion from the perspective of young adults with intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability, 1-10.
  • Milner, P., & Kelly, B. (2009). Community participation and inclusion: People with disabilities defining their place. Disability & Society24(1), 47-62.
  • Morris, T., McGuire, M., & Walker, B. (2017). Integrating social studies and social skills for students with emotional and behavioral disabilities: A mixed methods study. The Journal of Social Studies Research, 41(4), 253-262.
  • Patterson, I., & Pegg, S. (2009). Serious leisure and people with intellectual disabilities: Benefits and opportunities. Leisure Studies28(4), 387-402.
  • Rankin, M. (2012). Qualitative research report: Exploring why disabled people and deaf people do and don’t participate in sport. Loughborough: English Federation of Disability Sport.
  • Specht, J., King, G., Brown, E., & Foris, C. (2002). The importance of leisure in the lives of persons with congenital physical disabilities. American Journal of Occupational Therapy56(4), 436-445.
  • Sport England (2017). Annual Report and Accounts. Accessed on 27 November 2017 (https://www.sportengland.org/media/11822/sport-england-2016-17-annual-report-and-accounts.pdf)
  • Solish, A., Perry, A., & Minnes, P. (2010). Participation of children with and without disabilities in social, recreational and leisure activities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23(3), 226-236.
  • Sitlington, P. L., & Frank, A. R. (1990). Are adolescents with learning disabilities successfully crossing the bridge into adult life?. Learning Disability Quarterly, 13(2), 97-111.
  • Sport and Recreation Alliance (2016) ‘What’s the Score?’ Report. Accessed on 27 November 2017
  • Tsai, E. H. L., & Fung, L. (2009). Parents’ experiences and decisions on inclusive sport participation of their children with intellectual disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly26(2), 151-171. (2) Jeanes, R., Spaaij, R., Magee, J., Farquharson, K., Gorman, S., & Lusher, D. (2017). ‘Yes we are inclusive’: Examining provision for young people with disabilities in community sport clubs. Sport Management Review.
  • UK Government and Mayor of London (2017) Annual Report. Accessed on 27 November, 2017 (https://www.london.gov.uk/sites/default/files/mayors_annual_report_2017_final_rev1.pdf)
  • Vogt, T., Schneider, S., Abeln, V., Anneken, V., & Strüder, H. K. (2012). Exercise, mood and cognitive performance in intellectual disability—A neurophysiological approach. Behavioural Brain Research226(2), 473-480.
  • Zijlstra, H. P., & Vlaskamp, C. (2005). Leisure provision for persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities: quality time or killing time?. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research49(6), 434-448.
  • Activepeople.sportengland.org. (2018). Home Page. [online] Available at: http://activepeople.sportengland.org [Accessed 1 Mar. 2018]. 
  • Beart, S., Hawkins, D., Kroese, B. S., Smithson, P., & Tolosa, I. (2001). Barriers to accessing leisure opportunities for people with learning disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(4), 133-138.
  • R. Messent, P., Cooke, C. B., & Long, J. (1999). Primary and secondary barriers to physically active healthy lifestyles for adults with learning disabilities. Disability and Rehabilitation21(9), 409-419.
  • Ellison, C. J., & White, A. L. (2017). Exploring leisure and retirement for people with intellectual disabilities. Annals of Leisure Research20(2), 188-205.
  • McKercher, B., & Darcy, S. (2018). Re-conceptualizing barriers to travel by people with disabilities. Tourism Management Perspectives26, 59-66.
  • Fitzgerald, H. (2018). Disability and Barriers to Inclusion. In The Palgrave Handbook of Paralympic Studies (pp. 55-70). Palgrave Macmillan, London.

Employment references

  • Coleman, N., Sykes, W., and Groom, C. (2013) Barriers to Employment and Unfair Treatment at Work: a Quantitative Analysis of Disabled People’s Experiences. Equality and Human Rights Commission: Research Report no. 88. Available online (accessed 14/04/16).
  • DETINI (2016) Quarterly Supplement to the Labour Market Report October – December 2015 – Data Tables. Available online (accessed 22/03/16).
  • Greenbaum, B., Graham, S., & Scales, W. (1996). Adults with learning disabilities: Occupational and social status after college. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29(2), 167-173.
  • Hall, E. and Wilton, R. (2015) ‘Thinking differently about “work” and social inclusion for disabled people’. In Grover, C. and Piggott, L. Disabled People, Work and Welfare: is Employment really the Answer? Policy Press: University of Bristol, pp. 219-238.
  • HSCIC (2015) Measures from the Adult Social Care Outcomes Framework: England 2014-15, Final Release. Available online (accessed 13/04/16).
  • Meager, N. and Higgins, T. (2011) Disability and Skills in a Changing Economy. Available online (accessed 13/04/16).
  • NASCIS (2016) Social Care Data: ASC-CAR L1. Available online (accessed 13/04/16).
  • ONS (2014) All Employees - ASHE: Table 1 (2014, revised). Available online (accessed 14/04/16).
  • ONS (2016a) Labour Market Status of Disabled People: AO8. Available online (accessed 13/04/16).
  • ONS (2016b) UK Labour Market: March 2016 (Statistical Bulletin). Available online (accessed 13/04/16).
  • Roulstone, A., Harrington, B. and Kwang Hwang, S. (2014) ‘Flexible and personalised? An evaluation of a UK tailored employment support programme for jobseekers with enduring mental health problems and learning difficulties,’ Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 16(1): 14-28.
  • SCLD (2015) Learning Disability Statistics Scotland, 2014. Available online (accessed 13/04/16).
  • StatsWales (2015) Summary of Economic Activity by Area and Disabled Status, from April 2013. Available online (accessed 22/03/16).
  • Watts, R., Harflett, N., Robinson, C. and Greig, R. (2014) The Use of Personal Budgets for Employment Support. Report by NDTi (National Development Team for inclusion). Available online (accessed 13/04/16).

Children references

  • Andreou, E., Didaskalou, E. and Vlachou, A. (2015) ‘Bully/victim problems among Greek pupils with special educational needs: associations with loneliness and self-efficacy for peer interactions,’ Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 15(4): 235-246.
  • Children’s Commissioner (2013a) “They go the Extra Mile”: Reducing Inequalities in School ExclusionsAvailable online
  • Children’s Commissioner (2013b) Always Someone Else’s Problem: Office of the Children’s Commissioner’s Report on Illegal Exclusions. Available online (accessed 24/05/16).
  • Contact a Family (2012) Counting the Costs 2012: the Financial Reality for Families with Disabled Children across the UKAvailable online (accessed 25/04/16).
  • Cooper, S-A., Smiley, E., Morrison, J., Williamson, A. and Allan, L. (2006) ‘Mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities: prevalence and associated factors,’ The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190 (1): 27-35.
  • Department for Education (2015) Special Educational Needs in England (January 2015) National Tables. Available online
  • Department of Education Northern Ireland (2016) Annual Enrolments at Schools and in Funded Pre-school Education in Northern Ireland, 2015/16Available online
  • Department of Health (2013) Our Children Deserve Better: Prevention Pays (Annual Report of the Chief Medical Officer 2012)Available online (accessed 11/05/16).
  • Emerson, E. and Hatton, C. (2004) Estimating the Current Need/Demand for Supports for People with Learning Disabilities in England. Institute for Health Research, Lancaster University. Available online (accessed 03/06/16).
  • Emerson, E. and Hatton, C. (2007) ‘The mental health of children and adolescents with intellectual disabilities in Britain,’ British Journal of Psychiatry, 191: 493-499.
  • Emerson, E., Hatton, C., Robertson, J. and Baines, S. (2016) ‘Exposure to second hand tobacco smoke at home and child smoking at age 11 among British children with and without intellectual disability,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(3): 274-281.
  • Fink, E., Deighton, J., Humphrey, N. and Wolpert, M. (2015) ‘Assessing the bullying and victimisation experiences of children with special educational needs in mainstream schools: development and validation of the Bullying Behaviour and Experience Scale,’ Research in Developmental Disabilities, 36: 611-619.
  • Gore, N., Emerson, E. and Brady, S. (2015) ‘Rates of breastfeeding and exposure to socio-economic adversity amongst children with intellectual disability,’ Research in Developmental Disabilities, 39: 12-19.
  • Gov.uk (2016) Children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND). (accessed 03/06/16).
  • Haveman, M., Heller, T., Lee, L., Maaskant, M., Shooshtari, S. and Strydom, A. (2010) ‘Major health risks in aging persons with intellectual disabilities: an overview of recent studies,’ Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 7(1): 59-69.
  • IoE London (2014) Research Summary: Are Disabled Children and Young People at Higher Risk of being bullied? Available online
  • Jones, L., Bellis, M. A., Wood, S., Hughes, K., McCoy, E., Eckley, L., Bates, G., Mikton, C., Shakespeare, T. and Officer, A. (2012) ‘Prevalence and risk of violence against children with disabilities: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies,’ Lancet, 380(9845): 899-907.
  • McLaughlin, C., Byers, R. and Vaughan, R. P. (2010) Responding to Bullying among Children with Special Educational Needs and/or Disabilities. A report for the Anti-Bullying Alliance by the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education. Available online (accessed 10/05/16).
  • Office for National Statistics (2015) Annual Mid-year Population Estimates: 2014.Available online:(accessed 03/06/16).
  • Public Health England (2015) The Determinants of Health Inequities Experienced by Children with Learning Disabilities.
  • Rose, C. A., Monda-Amaya, L. E. and Espelage, D. L. (2011) ‘Bullying perpetration and victimization in special education: a review of the literature,’ Remedial and Special Education, 32: 114-130.
  • Salt, T. (2010) Salt Review: Independent Review of Teacher Supply for Pupils with Severe, Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties (SLD and PMLD)Available online
  • Scottish Government (2015) Pupil Census 2015 Supplementary Data. Available online
  • Spencer, N. (2013) ‘Reducing child health inequalities: what’s the problem?’ Archives of Disease in Childhood, 98: 836-837. Available online (accessed 11/05/16).
  • StatsWales (2015) Pupils with Special Educational Needs by Sector and Year. Available online
  • Ttofi, M. and Farrington, D. P. (2011) ‘Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: a systematic and meta-analytic review,’ Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7: 27-56.

Money & Banking references

  • Blackburn, C. M., Spencer, N. J. and Read, J. M. (2010) ‘Prevalence of childhood disability and the characteristics and circumstances of disabled children in the UK: secondary analysis of the Family Resources Survey,’ BMC Pediatrics, 10: 12.
  • Contact a Family (2012) Counting the Costs 2012: the Financial Reality for Families with Disabled Children across the UKAvailable online (accessed 25/04/16).
  • Cribb, J., Joyce, R. and Phillip, D. (2012) Living Standards, Poverty and Inequality in the UK (IFS Commentary C124)Available online (accessed 25/04/16).
  • Department for Education (2015) Special Educational Needs in England: January 2015Available online (accessed 25/04/16).
  • Department for Work and Pensions (2015a) Fulfilling Potential – Outcomes and Indicators Framework: Data TablesAvailable online (accessed 09/05/16).
  • Department for Work and Pensions (2015b) Fulfilling Potential – Outcomes and Indicators Framework: Second Annual Progress ReportAvailable online (accessed 25/04/16).
  • Department for Work and Pensions (2015c) Benefit expenditure by country and region, 1996/97 to 2014/15 (Benefit Expenditure and Caseload Tables 2015). Available online (accessed 09/05/16).
  • Dosh (2014) Access to Banking for people with a Learning Disability, Banking Rights Research Project: Final Report.
  • Gov.uk (2016) Financial Help if you’re DisabledWebpage (accessed 28/04/16).
  • HSCIC (2015) Community Care Statistics: Social Services Activity, England 2014-15Available online (accessed 26/04/16).
  • MacInnes, T., Tinson, A., Hughes, C., Born, T. B. and Aldridge, H. (2015) Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion 2015. Joseph Rowntree Foundation. Available online (accessed 25/04/16).
  • Scope (2014) Priced out: Ending the Financial Penalty of Disability by 2020Available online (accessed 25/04/16).
  • Note on statistics: a lot of government data is not broken down into different disability types, so many of the statistics on this page refer to all people with a disability - not just people with a learning disability.

 

Sexuality references

  • AAIDD (American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities) (2008) Position on SexualityAvailable online (accessed 12/02/16).
  • Abbott, D., Howarth, J. and Gyde, K. (2005) Secret Loves, Hidden Lives? A Summary of what People with Learning Difficulties said about being Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual. Norah Fry Research Centre, University of Bristol. Available online (accessed 11/01/16).
  • Acton, D. (2015) ‘Striking a balance between safety and free expression of sexuality,’ Learning Disability Practice, 18(6): 36-39.
  • Azzopardi-Lane, C. and Callus, A-M. (2015) ‘Constructing sexual identities: people with intellectual disability talking about sexuality,’ British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43: 32-37.
  • Barger, E., Wacker, J., Macy, R. and Parish, S. (2009) ‘Sexual assault prevention for women with intellectual disabilities: a critical review of the evidence,’ Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 47(4): 249-262.
  • Eastgate, G. (2008) ‘Sexual health for people with intellectual disability,’ Salud Pública de México, 50(2): 255-259.
  • Emerson, E., Malam, S., Davies, I. and Spencer, K. (2005) Adults with Learning Disabilities in England 2003/4Available online (accessed 17/02/16).
  • Fitzgerald, C. and Withers, P. (2013) ‘“I don’t know what a proper woman means”: what women with intellectual disabilities think about sex, sexuality and themselves,’ British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41: 5-12.
  • FPA (2004) Sexual Health and People with Learning Disabilities. FPA Factsheet. Available online (accessed 18/02/16).
  • Grieveo, A., McLaren, S. and Lindsay, W. R. (2007) ‘An evaluation of research and training resources for the sex education of people with moderate to severe learning disabilities,’ British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 35: 30-37.
  • Healy, E., McGuire, B. E., Evans, D. S. and Carley, S. N. (2009) ‘Sexuality and personal relationships for people with an intellectual disability. Part I: service-user perspectives,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 53(11): 905-912.
  • Johnson, K., Hillier, L., Harrison, L. and Frawley, P. (2001) Living Safer Sexual Lives Final Report. Melbourne: Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society, La Trobe University.
  • Jones, C. (2009) ‘Friendship, romance and possibly more,’ Learning Disability Practice, 12(2): 8-13.
  • Keywood, K. (2003) ‘Supported to be sexual: developing sexual rights for people with learning disabilities,’ Tizard Learning Disability Review, 8: 30-36.
  • Lafferty, A., McConkey, R. and Simpson, A. (2012) ‘Reducing the barriers to relationships and sexuality education for persons with intellectual disabilities,’ Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 16(1): 29-43.
  • LGBT HIP (Health Inclusion Project) and Lewis, M. (2015) LGBT Identity and Learning Disabilities Round Table ReportAvailable online (accessed 23/02/16).
  • McCarthy, M. (2014) ‘Women with intellectual disability: their sexual lives in the 21st century,’ Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 39(2): 124-131.
  • Noonan, A. and Gomez, M. T. (2011) ‘Who’s missing? Awareness of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people with intellectual disability,’ Sexuality and Disability, 29(2): 175-180.
  • Sinclair, J., Unruh, D., Lindstrom, L. and Scanlon, D. (2015) ‘Barriers to sexuality for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities: a review,’ Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 50(1): 3-16.
  • Stacey, J. and Edwards, A. (2013) ‘Resisting loneliness’ dark pit: a narrative therapy approach,’ Tizard Learning Disability Review, 18(1): 20-27.
  • WHO (World Health Organisation ) (2006) Defining Sexual Health. Report of a Technical Consultation on Sexual Health. World Health Organisation. Available online (accessed 17/02/16).

Friendship references

 

  • Abbott, S. and McConkey, R. (2006) ‘The barriers to social inclusion as perceived by people with intellectual disabilities,’ Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 10(3) 275-287.
  • Ager, A., Myers, F., Kerr, P., Myles, S., and Green, A. (2001) ‘Moving home: social integration for adults with intellectual disabilities resettling into community provision,’ Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 14: 392-400.
  • Baker, J. K., Fenning, R. M., Crnic, K. A., Baker, B. L. and Blacher, J. (2007) ‘Prediction of social skills in 6-year-old children with and without developmental delays: contributions of early regulation and maternal scaffolding,’ American Journal on Mental Retardation, 112(5): 375-391.
  • Bates, P. and Davis, F. A. (2004) ‘Social capital, social inclusion and services for people with learning disabilities,’ Disability and Society, 19(3): 195-207.
  • Calvert, D. (2010) ‘Loaded Pistols: the interplay of social intervention and anti-aesthetic tradition in learning disabled performance,’ University of Huddersfield RepositoryAvailable online: (accessed 01/02/16).
  • Cambridge, P., Carpenter, J., Beecham, J., Hallam, A., Knapp, M., Forrester-Jones, R. and Tate, A. (2002) ‘Twelve years on: the long-term outcomes and costs of deinstitutionalisation and community care for people with learning disabilities,’ Tizard Learning Disability Review, 7(3): 34–42.
  • Carnaby, S. (2004) People with Profound and Multiple Learning Disabilities: a Review of Research about their Lives, a report commissioned by Mencap. Available online: (accessed 30/11/15).
  • Chadwick, D., Wesson, C. and Fullwood, C. (2014) ‘Internet access by people with intellectual disabilities: inequalities and opportunities.’ Future Internet, 5, 376-397.
  • Cummins, R. and Lau, A. (2003) ‘Community integration or community exposure? A review and discussion in relation to people with an intellectual disability,’ Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 16, 145-157.
  • Darcy, S. and Dowse, L. (2013) ‘In search of a level playing field – the constraints and benefits of sport participation of people with intellectual disability,’ Disability and Society, 28(3): 393-407.
  • Emerson, E. and Hatton, C. (2007) The Mental Health of Children and Adolescents with Learning Disabilities in Britain, Institute for Health Research, Lancaster University. Available online: (accessed 30/11/15).
  • Emerson, E. and Hatton, C. (2008) People with Learning Disabilities in England, Centre for Disability Research. Available online: (accessed 30/11/15).
  • Gilmore, L. and Cuskelly, M. (2014) ‘Vulnerability to loneliness in people with intellectual disability: an explanatory model,’ Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 11(3): 192-199.
  • Heiman, T. (2001) ‘Depressive mood in students with mild intellectual disability: students’ reports and teachers’ evaluations,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 45(6): 526-534.
  • Holder, M. and Coleman, B. (2007) ‘The contribution of social relationships to children’s happiness,’ Journal of Happiness Studies, 10: 329-349.
  • Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith T. B. and Layton, J. B. (2010) ‘Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review,’ PLoS Medicine, 7(7): 1-20. 
  • Jahoda, A, and Pownall, J. (2014) ‘Sexual understanding, sources of information and social networks; the reports of young people with intellectual disabilities and their non-disabled peers,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 58(5), 430–41.
  • Jones, C. (2009) ‘Friendship, romance and possibly more,’ Learning Disability Practice, 12(2): 8-13.
  • Lunsky, Y. (2003) ‘Depressive symptoms in intellectual disability: does gender play a role?’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47(6): 417-427.
  • Lunsky, Y. (2004) ‘Suicidality in a clinical and community sample of adults with mental retardation,’ Research in Developmental Disabilities, 25: 231-243.
  • Mansell, J. (2010) Raising Our Sights: Services for Adults with Profound Intellectual and Multiple DisabilitiesAvailable online: (accessed 30/11/15).
  • Mason, P., Timms, K., Hayburn, T., and Watters, C. (2013) ‘How do people described as having a learning disability make sense of friendship?’ Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26(2): 108–18.
  • McConkey, R., McConaghie, J., Mezza, F. and Wilson, J. (2003) ‘Moving from long-stay hospitals. The views of Northern Irish patients and relatives,’ Journal of Learning Disabilities, 7(1), 78-93.
  • McConkey, R., Dowling, S., Hassan, D. and Menke, S. (2013) ‘Promoting social inclusion through Unified Sports for youth with intellectual disabilities: a five-nation study,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 57(10): 923-935.
  • Milner, P. and Kelly, B. (2009) ‘Community participation and inclusion: people with disabilities defining their place,’ Disability & Society, 24(1): 47-62.
  • ODI (Office for Disability Issues) (2014) Disability Facts and FiguresAvailable online: (accessed 01/12/15).
  • Rankin, M. (2012) Understanding the Barriers to Participation in Sport: Views and Opinions of Active and Non-active Disabled People, English Federation of Disability Sport. Available online: (accessed 30/11/15).
  • Reynolds, F. (2002) ‘A survey of opportunities and barriers to creative leisure activity for people with learning disabilities,’ British Journal of Learning Disabilities,30(2): 63-67.
  • Scior, K. and Werner, S. (2015) Changing Attitudes to Learning Disability: a Review of the Evidence. Mencap: London. Available online: (accessed 30/11/15).
  • Scope.org.uk. (2018). Nearly half of disabled people chronically lonely | Disability charity Scope UK. [online] Available at: https://www.scope.org.uk/press-releases/nearly-half-of-disabled-people-chronically-lonely [Accessed 1 Mar. 2018].
  • Skellem, J. and Astbury, G. (2012) ‘Gaining employment: the experience of students at a further education college for individuals with learning disabilities,’ British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42: 60-67.
  • Stancliffe, R. J., Lakin, C., Doljanac, R., Byun, S-Y., Taub, S. and Chiri, G. (2007) ‘Loneliness and living arrangements,’ Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 45(6): 380-390.
  • Stay Up Late (2016) About Stay Up Late. Website
  • Ueno, K. (2005) ‘The effects of friendship networks on adolescent depressive symptoms,’ Social Science Research, 34, 484-510.
  • Ware, J. (1994) Educating Children with Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties. David Fulton Publishers: London.
  • Windle, K., Francis, J. and Coomber, C. (2011) Preventing Loneliness and Social Isolation: Interventions and Outcomes, SCIE Research briefing 39Available online: (accessed 30/11/15). 

Social care references

  • Arksey, H. and Baxter, K. (2012) ‘Exploring the temporal aspects of direct payments,’ British Journal of Social Work, 42: 147-164.
  • Fernandez, J-L., Snell, T. and Marczak, J. (2015) An Assessment of the Impact of the Care Act 2014 Eligibility Regulations. PSSRU Discussion Paper DP2905, University of Kent. Available online (accessed 26/04/16).
  • Gov.uk (2015) Apply for a Needs Assessment by Social ServicesWebpage (accessed 26/04/16).
  • HSCIC (2015a) Community Care Statistics: Social Services Activity, England 2014-15Available online (accessed 26/04/16).
  • HSCIC (2015b) Personal Social Services: Expenditure and Unit Costs England 2014-15, Final ReleaseAvailable online (accessed 26/04/16).
  • HSCIC (2015a) Community Care Statistics: Social Services Activity, England 2014-15Available online (accessed 26/04/16).
  • NHS Digital (2017) Adult Social Care Activity and Finance Report, England, 2016-17http://digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB30121

 

Mental health references

  • Barnes, J. and Summers, S. (2011) ‘Using systemic and psychodynamic psychotherapy with a couple in a community learning disabilities context: a case study,’ British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40: 259-265.
  • Barrowcliff, A. (2007) ‘Cognitive-behavioural therapy for command hallucinations and intellectual disability: a case study,’ Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 21: 236-245.
  • Beail, N. (2013) ‘From denial to acceptance of sexually offending behaviour: a psychodynamic approach,’ Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 7(5): 293-299.
  • Bhaumik, S., Gangadharan, S., Hiremath, A. and Russel, P. (2011) ‘Psychological treatments in intellectual disability: the challenges of building a good evidence base,’ The British Journal of Psychiatry, 198: 428-430.
  • Chinn, D., Abraham, E., Burke, C., & Davies, J. (2014) IAPT and Learning Disabilities. Research report by Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities and King’s College London.
  • Cooper S.-A., Melville C. A. & Morrison J. (2004) People with intellectual disabilities. Their health needs differ and need to be recognised and met. BMJ, 329, 414– 415.
  • Crocker, A., Prokic , A., Morin, D. and Reyes, A. (2014) ‘Intellectual disability and co-occurring mental health and physical disorders in aggressive behaviour,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 58(11): 1032-1044.
  • De Ruiter, K. P., Dekker, M. C., Verhulst, F. C., and Koot, H. M. (2007) ‘Developmental course of psychopathology in youths with and without intellectual disabilities,’ Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 48: 498-507.
  • Department of Health (2013) Learning disabilities - positive practice guide.
  • Emerson, E. and Hatton, C. (2007) ‘The mental health of children and adolescents with learning disabilities in Britain,’ British Journal of Psychiatry, 191(1): 439-499.
  • Foundation for People with Learning Disabilities. (2014) Feeling Down: Improving the Mental Health of People with Learning Disabilities. Available online.
  • Hackett, L., Theodosiou, L., Bond, C., Blackburn, C. and Lever, R. (2011) ‘Understanding the mental health needs of pupils with severe learning disabilities in an inner city local authority,’ British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(1): 327-333.
  • Hagerty, B. and Williams, R. (1999) ‘The effects of sense of belonging, social support, conflict, and loneliness on depression,’ Nursing Research, 48(4): 215-219.
  • Hastings, R, Hatton, C., Taylor, J., and Maddison, C. (2004) ‘Life events and psychiatric symptoms in adults with intellectual disabilities,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 48(1): 42-6.
  • Jacobi, F., Wittchen, H.U., Holting, C., Hofler, M., Pfister, H., Muller, N. and Lieb, R. (2004) ‘Prevalence, co-morbidity and correlates of mental disorders in the general population: results from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey (GHS),’ Psychological Medicine, 34: 1-15.
  • James, C. and Stacey, M. (2014) ‘The effectiveness of psychodynamic interventions for people with learning disabilities: a systematic review,’ Tizard Learning Disability Review, 19(1): 17-24.
  • Kaehne, A. (2011) ‘Transition from children and adolescent to adult mental health services for young people with intellectual disabilities: a scoping study of service organisation problems,’ Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 5(1): 9 -16.
  • Kroese, B., Rose, J., Heer, K. and O’Brien, A. (2013) ‘Mental health services for adults with intellectual disabilities - what do service users and staff think of them?,’ Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26: 3-13. 
  • MacHale, R. and Carey, S. (2002) ‘An investigation of the effects of bereavement on mental health and challenging behaviour in adults with learning disability,’ British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 30(3): 113-117.
  • Main, G. and Pople, L.  (2011) Missing out: a Child Centred Analysis of Material Deprivation and Subjective Well-being. The Children's Society. Available online.
  • Marshall, K. and Ferris, J. (2013) ‘Utilising behavioural family therapy (BFT) to help support the system around a person with intellectual disability and complex mental health needs: a case study,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability, 16(2): 109-118.
  • Mason, J. and Scior, K. (2004). ‘“Diagnostic overshadowing” amongst clinicians working with people with intellectual disabilities in the UK,’ Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 17, 8-90.
  • McCarron, M., Swinburne, J., Burke, E., McGlinchey, E., Mulryan, N., Andrews, V., Foran, S. and McCallion, P. (2011) Growing Older with an Intellectual Disability in Ireland in 2011: First Results from The Intellectual Disability Supplement of The Irish Longitudian Study on Ageing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin. Available online.
  • McManus, S., Meltzer, H., Brugha, T., Bebbington, P. and Jenkins, R. (2009) Adult Psychiatric Morbidity in England, 2007 - Results of a Household Survey. The Health and Social Care Information Centre. Available online.
  • Mind (2016a) Mental Health Facts and StatisticsWebpage.
  • Mind (2016b) Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT)Webpage.
  • Murphy, G., Sinclair, N., Hays, S.-J., Heaton, K., Powell, S. et al. (2010) ‘Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioural treatment for men with intellectual disabilities at risk of sexual offending,’ Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23: 537-551.
  • NHS Health Scotland (2004)Health Needs Assessment Report. People with Learning Disabilities in Scotland. NHS Health Scotland.
  • Prout, H. and Browning, B. (2010) ‘Literature review: psychotherapy with persons with intellectual disabilities: a review of effectiveness research,’ Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 5(5): 53-59.
  • Royal College of Nursing (2010) Mental Health Nursing of Adults with Learning Disabilities: RCN Guidance. Available online.
  • Royal College of Psychiatrists (2016) Antipsychotics. Webpage.
  • Scheepers, M., Kerr, M., O’Hara, D., et al (2005) Reducing health disparity in people with intellectual disabilities: a report from the Health Issues Special Interest Research Group of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 2, 249– 255.
  • Singh, A., Matson, J., Cooper, C., Dixon, D. and Sturmey, P. (2005) ‘The use of risperidone among individuals with mental retardation: clinically supported or not?,’ Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26: 203-218.
  • Stacey, J. and Edwards, A. (2013) ‘Resisting loneliness' dark pit: a narrative therapy approach,’ Tizard Learning Disability Review, 12(18): 20-27.
  • Taylor, J., Lindsay, W. and Willner, P. (2008) ‘CBT for people with intellectual disabilities: emerging evidence, cognitive ability and IQ effects,’ Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 36(6): 723-733.
  • Thalitaya, M., Udu, V., Nicholls, M., Clark, T. and Prasher, V. (2011) ‘POMHS 9B - antipsychotic prescribing in people with a learning disability,’ Psychiatria Danubina, 23(1): 50-56. 
  • Tyrer, P., Oliver-Africano, P., Ahmed, Z., Bouras, N., Cooray, S. et al. (2008) ‘Risperidone, haloperidol, and placebo in the treatment of aggressive challenging behaviour in patients with intellectual disability: a randomised controlled trial,’ Lancet, 371: 57-63.
  • Varghese, S., and Banerjee, S. (2011) ‘Psychotic disorders in learning disabilities - outcome of an audit across community teams,’ British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(2): 148–153.

Health inequalities references

  • Allerton, L. and Emerson, E. (2012) ‘British adults with chronic health conditions or impairments face significant barriers to accessing health services,’ Public Health,126: 920- 927.
  • Cooper, S.-A., Smiley, E., Morrison, J., Williamson, A. & Allan, L. (2007) ‘Mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities: prevalence and associated factors,’ The British Journal of Psychiatry, 190: 27-35.
  • Emerson, E., and Baines, S. (2010) Health Inequalities and People with Learning Disabilities in the UK : 2010.
  • Emerson, E., Baines, S., Allerton, L., & Welch, V. (2011) Health Inequalities and People with Learning Disabilities in the UK : 2011.
  • Glover, G. (2014) The Uptake of Learning Disability Health Checks 2013 to 2014. Public Health England.
  • Glover, G., and Niggebrugge, A. (2013). The Uptake of Health Checks for Adults with Learning Disabilities 2008/9 to 2012/13.
  • Haveman, M., Heller, T., Lee, L. Maaskant, M, Shooshtari, S and Strydom, A. (2010) ‘Major health risks in aging persons with intellectual disabilities: an overview of recent studies,’ Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 7(1), 59-69.
  • Heslop, P., Blair, P., Fleming, P., Hoghton, M., Marriott, A., & Russ, L. (2013) Confidential Inquiry into premature deaths of people with learning disabilities (CIPOLD): Final Report. Norah Fry Research Centre. Available online.
  • Holly, D. and Sharp, J. (2014) ‘Addressing health inequities: coronary heart disease training within learning disabilities services,’ British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 42(2): 110-116.
  • McCarron, M., Swinburne, J., Burke, E., McGlinchey, E., Mulryan, N., Andrews, V., Foran, S. and McCallion, P. (2011) Growing Older with an Intellectual Disability in Ireland in 2011: First Results from The Intellectual Disability Supplement of The Irish Longitudian Study on Ageing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin. Available online.
  • McConkey, R., Taggart, L., and Kane, M. (2015) ‘Optimizing the uptake of health checks for people with intellectual disabilities,’ Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 19(3): 205–214.
  • Moseley, D., Tonge, B., Bereton, A. and Einfeld, A. (2011) ‘Psychiatric comorbidity in adolescents and young adults with autism,’ Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 4: 229-243.
  • ONS (2012) Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2011. Available online.
  • ONS (2013) Deaths Registered in England and Wales, 2012Available online.
  • ONS (2015) Avoidable Mortality in England and Wales. Statistical bulletin. Available online.  
  • Perry, J., Kerr, M., Felce, D., Bartley, S. and Tomlinson, J. (2010) Monitoring the Public Health Impact of Health Checks for Adults with a Learning Disability in Wales.Available online.
  • Robertson, J., Roberts, H., and Emerson, E. (2010). Health Checks for People with Learning Disabilities: a Systematic Review of Evidence. Available online.
  • Townsend, C. (2011) ‘Developing a comprehensive research agenda for people with intellectual disability to inform policy development and reform,’ Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 8(2): 113-124.
  • Tuffrey-Wijne, I., Giatras, N., Goulding, L., Abraham, E. and Fenwick, L. (2013) ‘Identifying the factors affecting the implementation of strategies to promote a safer environment for patients with learning disabilities in NHS hospitals: a mixed-methods study,’ Health Services and Delivery Research, 1(13). Available online

Commonly associated health conditions references

  • Bhaumik, S., Watson, J., Thorp, C., Tyrer, F. and McGrother, C. (2008) ‘Body mass index in adults with intellectual disability: distribution, associations and service implications: a population-based prevalence study,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52 (4): 287-298.
  • Emerson, E. (2005) ‘Underweight, obesity and exercise among adults with intellectual disabilities in supported accommodation in Northern England,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(2): 134-143.
  • Gazizova, D., Puri, B. K., Singh, I. and Dhaliwal, R. (2012) ‘The overweight: obesity and plasma lipids in adults with intellectual disability and mental illness,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(9): 895-901.
  • Glover, G., and Ayub, M. (2010) ‘How people with learning disabilities die,’ Improving Health and Lives Learning Disabilities Observatory.
  • Goldstone, A., Thomas, E., Brynes, A., Bell, J., Frost, G., Saeed, N., Hajnal, J., Howard, J., Holland, A. and Bloom, S. (2001). ‘Visceral adipose tissue and metabolic complications of obesity are reduced in Prader-Willi syndrome female adults: evidence for novel influences on body fat distribution,’ The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86(9): 4330-4338.
  • Joint Epilepsy Council of the UK and Ireland (2011) Epilepsy Prevalence, Incidence and Other Statistics. Available online.
  • McCarron, M., Swinburne, J., Burke, E., McGlinchey, E., Mulryan, N., Andrews, V., Foran, S. and McCallion, P. (2011) Growing Older with an Intellectual Disability in Ireland in 2011: First Results from The Intellectual Disability Supplement of The Irish Longitudian Study on Ageing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin. Available online.
  • McGrother, C., Bhaumik,S., Thorp, C., Hauck, A., Branford, D. and Watson, J. (2006) ‘Epilepsy in adults with intellectual disabilities: prevalence, associations and service implications,’ Seizure, 15: 376-386.
  • Phipps, L. (2013) Down's Syndrome and Dementia: what's the Link? Webpage.
  • Pierce, M., Cahill, S. and O'Shea, E. (2014) Prevalence and Projections of Dementia in Ireland, 2011-2046. Available online.
  • Public Health England (2014) Obesity and Disability: Children and Young People.
  • Strydom, A., Chan, T., King, M., Hassiotis, A. and Livingston, G. (2013) ‘Incidence of dementia in older adults with intellectual disabilities,’ Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34: 1881-1885.
  • Glover (2017) Health promotion messages in the Learning Disability Health and Care dataset, year 3 – 2016/17. Webinar. 12th December 2017.
  • NHS Digital (2017) Health and Care of People with Learning Disabilities: Experimental Statistics: 2016 to 2017. http://digital.nhs.uk/catalogue/PUB30167

Stigma references

  • Cooney, G., Jahoda, A., Gumley, A. & Knott, F. (2006). Young people with learning
  • disabilities attending mainstream and segregated schooling: perceived stigma, social comparisons and future aspirations. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50, 432-445.
  • Crabtree, J., W., Haslam, A., S., Postmes, T. & Haslam, C. (2010). Mental health support groups, stigma and self-esteem: Positive and negative implications of group
  • identification. Journal of Social Issues,
  • Crocker, J. & Major, B. (1989). Social stigma and self-esteem: The self-protective properties
  • of stigma. Psychological Review, 96, 608-630.
  • Edgerton, R.B. (1967). The Cloak of Competence, Berkley: University of California Press. Emerson, E. (2003). Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with and without intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 47, 51ñ58.
  • Goffman, E. (1963). Notes on the Management of a Spoiled Identity. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall.
  • Jacoby, A. (1994). Felt versus enacted stigma: Aconcept revisited. Evidence from a study of people with epilepsy in remission. Social Science and Medicine, 38, 269-74.
  • Jahoda, A. (1995). Quality of Life: Hope for the Future or an Echo from the Distant Past? In I. Markova and R. Farr (Eds.) Representations of Health, Illness and Handicap (page
  • range). Singapore: Harwood.
  • Jahoda, A. Cattermole, M. & Markova I. (1989). Stigma and the self-concept of
  • people with a mild mental handicap, Journal of Mental Deficiency Research,
  • 32, 103-115.
  • Jahoda, A., Dagnan, D., Jarvie,P., & Kerr,W. (2006). Depression, social context and
  • cognitive behavioural therapy for people who have intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 19, 81-89.
  • Jahoda, A. & Markova, I. (2004). Coping with social stigma: People with intellectual disabilities moving from institutions and family home. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 48, 719-729.
  • Jahoda, A., Trower, P., Pert, C. & Finn, D. (2001). Contingent reinforcement or defending the self? A review of evolving models of aggression in people with mild learning disabilities. British Journal of Medical Psychology
  • Reiss S. & Benson B. A. (1984). Awareness of negative social conditions among mentally retarded, emotionally disturbed outpatients. American Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 88ñ90.
  • Todd, S. & Shearn, J. (1997). Family secrets and dilemmas of status: Parental
  • management of the disclosures of ëlearning disabilityí. Disability and Society, 12, 341-366.
  • Wilson, A., Jahoda, A., Stalker, K., & Cairney, A. (2005). Whatís happening? How young people with intellectual disabilities and their family carers understand anxiety and
  • depression. In Making us count: A Research Report (pp. 37-63). London: The Mental
  • Health Foundation.

How common is learning disability references