Below you will find full referencing for the Mencap research and statistics pages.


Employment references

  • Coleman, N., Sykes, W., and Groom, C. (2013) Barriers to Employment and Unfair Treatment at Work: a Quantitative Analysis of Disabled People’s Experiences. Equality and Human Rights Commission: Research Report no. 88. Available online  (accessed 14/04/16). 

    DETINI (2016) Quarterly Supplement to the Labour Market Report October – December 2015 – Data Tables. Available online (accessed 22/03/16). 

    Emerson, E. & Hatton, C. (2008). People with Learning Disabilities in England. Centre for Disability Research. Available online  

    Hall, E. and Wilton, R. (2015) ‘Thinking differently about “work” and social inclusion for disabled people’. In Grover, C. and Piggott, L. Disabled People, Work and Welfare: is Employment really the Answer? Policy Press: University of Bristol, pp. 219-238. 

    Meager, N. and Higgins, T. (2011) Disability and Skills in a Changing Economy. Available online (accessed 13/04/16). 

    NHS Digital (2018) Measures from the Adult Social Care Outcomes Framework: England 2017-18, Final Release. Available online (accessed 29/04/19). 

    Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency (NISRA) (2018). Labour Market and Social Welfare Labour Force Survey - Quarterly Labour Force Survey Tables – February 2019. Available online (accessed 01/05/19) 

    ONS (2019a) Labour Market Status of Disabled People: AO8. Available online (accessed 15/05/19). 

    ONS (2019b) Labour market overview, UK: May 2019 (Statistical Bulletin). Available online (accessed 15/05/19). 

    Roulstone, A., Harrington, B. and Kwang Hwang, S. (2014) ‘Flexible and personalised? An evaluation of a UK tailored employment support programme for jobseekers with enduring mental health problems and learning difficulties,’ Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 16(1): 14-28. 

    Scottish Commission for Learning Disability (SCLD) (2018). Learning Disability Statistics Scotland, 2018 Provisional Statistics. Available online (accessed 29/05/19). 

    StatsWales (2019) Summary of Economic Activity by Area and Disabled Status, from April 2013. Available online (accessed 01/05/19). 

    Watts, R., Harflett, N., Robinson, C. and Greig, R. (2014) The Use of Personal Budgets for Employment Support. Report by NDTi (National Development Team for inclusion). Available online (accessed 13/04/16). 

Children references

  • Andreou, E., Didaskalou, E. and Vlachou, A. (2015) ‘Bully/victim problems among Greek pupils with special educational needs: associations with loneliness and self-efficacy for peer interactions,’ Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 15(4): 235-246.

    Chatzitheochari, S., Parsons, S., & Platt, L. (2016). Doubly disadvantaged? Bullying experiences among disabled children and young people in England. Sociology50(4), 695-713. Available online (accessed 28/05/19)

    Children’s Commissioner (2013a) “They go the Extra Mile”: Reducing Inequalities in School ExclusionsAvailable online (accessed 08/08/19).

    Children’s Commissioner (2013b) Always Someone Else’s Problem: Office of the Children’s Commissioner’s Report on Illegal Exclusions. Available online (accessed 08/08/19).

    Contact a Family (2018) Counting the costs: Research into the finances of more than 2,700 families across the UK in 2018. Available online (accessed 26/04/19).

    Department for Education (2018) Special educational needs in England: January 2018. National Tables Available Online (accessed 09/04/19)

    Department of Education Northern Ireland (2019) Annual enrolments at schools and in funded preschool education in Northern Ireland, 2018/19. Available online (accessed 09/04/19)

    Emerson E. (2012) Household deprivation, neighbourhood deprivation, ethnicity and the prevalence of intellectual and developmental disabilities Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health. 66:218-24.

    Fink, E., Deighton, J., Humphrey, N. and Wolpert, M. (2015) ‘Assessing the bullying and victimisation experiences of children with special educational needs in mainstream schools: development and validation of the Bullying Behaviour and Experience Scale,’ Research in Developmental Disabilities, 36: 611-619. (2016) Children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) Available online (accessed 03/06/16)

    IoE London (2014) Research Summary: Are Disabled Children and Young People at Higher Risk of being bullied? Available online

    McLaughlin, C., Byers, R. and Vaughan, R. P. (2010) Responding to Bullying among Children with Special Educational Needs and/or Disabilities. A report for the Anti-Bullying Alliance by the University of Cambridge Faculty of Education. Available online (accessed 10/05/16).

    Office for National Statistics (2019) Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Available online

    Public Health England (2015). The determinants of health inequities experienced by children with learning disabilities. Available online (accessed 31/05/19) 

    Public Health England (2016) Learning Disabilities Observatory. People with Learning Disabilities in England 2015: Main Report. Available online

    Public Health England (2019a) People with Learning Disabilities in England. Education and children’s social care: 2018 update. London: Public Health England Available online (accessed 07/08/19)

    Public Health England (2019b) People with learning disabilities in England. Chapter 1: education and children’s social care updates. Available online (accessed 07/08/19)

    Rose, C. A., Monda-Amaya, L. E. and Espelage, D. L. (2011) ‘Bullying perpetration and victimization in special education: a review of the literature,’ Remedial and Special Education, 32: 114-130.

    Salt, T. (2010) Salt Review: Independent Review of Teacher Supply for Pupils with Severe, Profound and Multiple Learning Difficulties (SLD and PMLD)Available online

    Scottish Government (2018) Pupil Census 2018 Supplementary Data. Available online (accessed 09/04/2019)

    StatsWales (2018) Pupils with Special Educational Needs by Sector and Year. Available online (accessed 09/04/19)

    Taheri, A., Perry, A., & Minnes, P. (2016). Examining the social participation of children and adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorder in relation to peers. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research60(5), 435-443.

    Ttofi, M. and Farrington, D. P. (2011) ‘Effectiveness of school-based programs to reduce bullying: a systematic and meta-analytic review,’ Journal of Experimental Criminology, 7: 27-56.

Sexuality references

  • Abbott, D., & Howarth, J. (2007). Still off‐limits? Staff views on supporting gay, lesbian and bisexual people with intellectual disabilities to develop sexual and intimate relationships?. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities20(2), 116-126.

    Abbott, D., Howarth, J. and Gyde, K. (2005) Secret Loves, Hidden Lives? A Summary of what People with Learning Difficulties said about being Gay, Lesbian or Bisexual. Norah Fry Research Centre, University of Bristol. Available online (accessed 11/01/16).

    Baines, S., Emerson, E., Robertson, J., & Hatton, C. (2018). Sexual activity and sexual health among young adults with and without mild/moderate intellectual disability. BMC public health18(1), 667.

    Bates, C., Terry, L., & Popple, K. (2017a). The importance of romantic love to people with learning disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 45(1), 64-72.

    Bates, C., Terry, L., & Popple, K. (2017b). Partner selection for people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 30(4), 602-611.

    Brown, M., & McCann, E. (2018). Sexuality issues and the voices of adults with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review of the literature. Research in developmental disabilities, 74, 124-138. 

    Byrne, G. (2018). Prevalence and psychological sequelae of sexual abuse among individuals with an intellectual disability: A review of the recent literature. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 22(3), 294-310. 

    Dukes E and McGuire BE (2009) Enhancing capacity to make sexuality-related decisions in people with an intellectual disability. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 53(8): 727–734.

    Eastgate, G. (2008) ‘Sexual health for people with intellectual disability,’ Salud Pública de México, 50(2): 255-259.

    Frawley P and Bigby C (2014) ‘I’m in their shoes’: Experiences of peer educators in sexuality and relationship education. Journal of Intellectual & Developmental Disability 39(2): 167–176.

    Harflett, N., & Turner, S. (2016). Supporting people with learning disabilities to develop sexual and romantic relationships. National Development for Inclusion (NDTI). Available online (accessed 13/08/19)

    Jahoda, A., & Pownall, J. (2014). Sexual understanding, sources of information and social networks; the reports of young people with intellectual disabilities and their non‐disabled peers. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 58(5), 430-441.

    Lafferty, A., McConkey, R. and Simpson, A. (2012) ‘Reducing the barriers to relationships and sexuality education for persons with intellectual disabilities,’ Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 16(1): 29-43.

    LGBT HIP (Health Inclusion Project) and Lewis, M. (2015) LGBT Identity and Learning Disabilities Round Table Report. Available online (accessed 03/09/19).

    Maguire, K., Gleeson, K., & Holmes, N. (2019). Support workers’ understanding of their role supporting the sexuality of people with learning disabilities. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(1), 59-65. 

    McCann, E., Lee, R., & Brown, M. (2016). The experiences and support needs of people with intellectual disabilities who identify as LGBT: a review of the literature. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 57, 39-53. 

    McCann, E., Marsh, L., & Brown, M. (2019). People with intellectual disabilities, relationship and sex education programmes: A systematic review. Health Education Journal, 0(00), 1-16.

    National Development for Inclusion (NDTI) (2019). The Right to a Relationship. Addressing the barriers that people with learning disabilities face in developing and sustaining intimate and sexual relationships. Available online (accessed 13/08/2019)  

    Noonan, A. and Gomez, M. T. (2011) ‘Who’s missing? Awareness of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people with intellectual disability,’ Sexuality and Disability, 29(2): 175-180.

    Rowe, B., & Wright, C. (2017). Sexual knowledge in adolescents with intellectual disabilities: A timely reflection. Journal of Social Inclusion8(2), 42-53.

    Rushbrooke, E., Murray, C., & Townsend, S. (2014). The experiences of intimate relationships by people with intellectual disabilities: A qualitative study. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 27(6), 531-541.

    Schaafsma, D., Kok, G., Stoffelen, J. M. T., & Curfs, L. M. G. (2017). People with intellectual disabilities talk about sexuality: implications for the development of sex education. Sexuality and disability35(1), 21-38.

    Sinclair, J., Unruh, D., Lindstrom, L. and Scanlon, D. (2015) ‘Barriers to sexuality for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities: a review,’ Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 50(1): 3-16.

    Whittle, C., & Butler, C. (2018). Sexuality in the lives of people with intellectual disabilities: A meta-ethnographic synthesis of qualitative studies. Research in developmental disabilities75, 68-81.

Friendship references


  • Activity Alliance (2013). Access for all - opening doors. English Federation Of Disability Sport. Available online (accessed 28/08/19) 


    Allcock, A. (2018). ESSS Outline: Disability and access to leisure. IrissAvailable online (accessed 27/08/19) 


    Arts Council England (2019). Building Access: A good practice guide for arts and cultural organisations. Available online (accessed 23/08/19) 


    Chadwick, D., Wesson, C. and Fullwood, C. (2014) ‘Internet access by people with intellectual disabilities: inequalities and opportunities.’ Future Internet, 5, 376-397. 

  (2019). Changing Places. Webpage (accessed 23/08/19)  


    Charnley, H., Hwang, S. K., Atkinson, C., & Walton, P. (2019). ‘If I were given the chance’: understanding the use of leisure time by adults with learning disabilities. Disability & Society, 34(4), 540-563. 


    Copestake, P., Sheikh, S., Johnston, S., & Bollen, A. (2014). Removing barriers, raising disabled people’s living standards. OPM and Ipsos MORI. Available online. (Accessed 22/08/19) 

    Cummins, R. and Lau, A. (2003) ‘Community integration or community exposure? A review and discussion in relation to people with an intellectual disability,’ Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 16, 145-157. 


    DCMS (2018). Taking Part Survey: England. Adult Report, 2017/18. Department for Digital, Culture, Media & Sport. Available online (accessed 23/08/19) 


    Dowling, S., D. Hassan, R. McConkey, and G. Breslin. (2012). Examining the Relationship between Physical Activity and the Health and Wellbeing of People with Intellectual Disabilities: A Literature Review. Ulster: Special Olympics Ireland. 


    DWP & DCMS (2015). The Inclusive and Accessible Stadia Report - Attending Spectator Sports: Disabled Spectators’ Experiences and Club Perspectives. Department for Work & Pensions and Department for Culture, Media & Support. Available online (accessed 23/08/19) 


    Gilmore, L., & Cuskelly, M. (2014). Vulnerability to loneliness in people with intellectual disability: An explanatory model. Journal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities, 11(3), 192-199. 


    Goldbart, J., & Caton, S. (2010). Communication and people with the most complex needs: What works and why this is essential. Mencap. Available online  


    Harding, C., Lindsay, G., O'Brien, A., Dipper, L., & Wright, J. (2011). Implementing AAC with children with profound and multiple learning disabilities: a study in rationale underpinning intervention. Journal of research in special educational needs, 11(2), 120-129.  


    Ho, C. Y. (2016). Better health with more friends: the role of social capital in producing health. Health economics, 25(1), 91-100. 

    Hojjat, M., Moyer, A., & Halpin, A. M. (Eds.). (2017). The psychology of friendship. Oxford University Press. 

    Holt-Lunstad, J., Smith T. B. and Layton, J. B. (2010) ‘Social relationships and mortality risk: a meta-analytic review,’ PLoS Medicine, 7(7): 1-20.  

    Iulian-Doru, T., & Maria, T. (2013). Leisure sports activities impact on adults personal development and quality of life. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 84, 1090-1094. 

    Kamstra, A., Van der Putten, A. A. J., & Vlaskamp, C. (2015). The structure of informal social networks of persons with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 28(3), 249-256. 

    Mansell, J. (2010) Raising Our Sights: Services for Adults with Profound Intellectual and Multiple DisabilitiesAvailable online (accessed 30/11/15). 

    Mason, P., Timms, K., Hayburn, T., and Watters, C. (2013) ‘How do people described as having a learning disability make sense of friendship?’ Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 26(2): 108–18. 

    Mencap (2019) New research from Mencap shows bullying of people with a learning disability leading to social isolation. Press release.  

    NHS (2018) Exercise – Physical activity guidelines for adults. NHS Live Well. Webpage (accessed 23/08/19) 

    Overmars-Marx, T., Thomese, F., Verdonschot, M. & Meininger, H. (2013) Advancing social inclusion in the neighbourhood for people with an intellectual disability: an exploration of the literature.Disability & Society. 29, 255–274 

    Pye, M., & Sayce, L. (2014) Inclusive Communities A Guide for Local Authorities. Disability Rights UK. Available online (accessed 28/08/19) 

    Scior, K., & Werner, S. (2015). Changing attitudes to learning disability. London: Mencap. Available online (accessed 16/08/19)  

    Sense (2017). “Someone cares if I’m not there”: Addressing loneliness in disabled people. Jo Cox Commission on Loneliness: Disabled People. Available at: (accessed 20/05/19)  

    Shields, N., & Synnot, A. (2016). Perceived barriers and facilitators to participation in physical activity for children with disability: a qualitative study. BMC pediatrics, 16(1), 9. 

    Solish, A., Perry, A., & Minnes, P. (2010). Participation of children with and without disabilities in social, recreational and leisure activities. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 23(3), 226-236. 

    Sport England (2018). Active Lives Survey. Webpage (accessed 23/08/19) 

    Taheri, A., Perry, A., & Minnes, P. (2016). Examining the social participation of children and adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities and Autism Spectrum Disorder in relation to peers. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(5), 435-443. 

    Valtorta, N. K., Kanaan, M., Gilbody, S., Ronzi, S., & Hanratty, B. (2016). Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for coronary heart disease and stroke: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal observational studies. Heart, 102(13), 1009-1016. 

    Wilson, N. J., Jaques, H., Johnson, A., & Brotherton, M. L. (2017). From social exclusion to supported inclusion: Adults with intellectual disability discuss their lived experiences of a structured social group. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 30(5), 847-858. 

Social care references

  • NHS Digital (2018) Adult Social Care Activity and Finance Report, England, 2017-18. Reference Data Tables. Available online (Accessed 11/07/2019) 


Mental health references

  • Ali, A., King, M., Strydom, A., & Hassiotis, A. (2015). Self-reported stigma and symptoms of anxiety and depression in people with intellectual disabilities: Findings from a cross sectional study in England. Journal of Affective Disorders, 187, 224-231. 

    Austin, K. L., Hunter, M., Gallagher, E., & Campbell, L. E. (2018). Depression and anxiety symptoms during the transition to early adulthood for people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 62(5), 407-421. 

    Barnes, J. and Summers, S. (2011) ‘Using systemic and psychodynamic psychotherapy with a couple in a community learning disabilities context: a case study,’ British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40: 259-265. 

    Beail, N. (2013) ‘From denial to acceptance of sexually offending behaviour: a psychodynamic approach,’ Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 7(5): 293-299. 

    Bond, L., Carroll, R., Mulryan, N., O'Dwyer, M., O'Connell, J., Monaghan, R., Sheerin, F., McCallion, P. and McCarron, M., (2019). The association of life events and mental ill health in older adults with intellectual disability: results of the wave 3 Intellectual Disability Supplement to The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 63(5), pp.454-465. Available online (accessed 09/07/19) 

    Branford, D., Gerrard, D., Saleem, N., Shaw, C., & Webster, A. (2019). Stopping over-medication of people with intellectual disability, Autism or both (STOMP) in England part 1–history and background of STOMP. Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 13(1), 31-40.  

    Cohen, G., & Harvey, J. (2016). The use of psychological interventions for adult male sex offenders with a learning disability: a systematic review. Journal of sexual aggression, 22(2), 206-223. 

    Cooper, S.A., Smiley, E., Morrison, J., Allan, L., & Williamson, A. (2007) Prevalence of and associations with mental ill-health in adults with intellectual disabilities. British Journal of Psychiatry. 190, 27-35. 

    Evans, L., & Allez, K. (2018). Cognitive behaviour therapy for low self-esteem in a person with a learning disability: a case study. Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 12(2), 67-76. 

    Glover, G., Williams, R., Branford, D., Avery, R., Chauhan, U., Hoghton, M., & Bernard, S. (2015). Prescribing of psychotropic drugs to people with learning disabilities and/or autism by general practitioners in England. Available online (Accessed: 05/08/2019) 

    Hamers, P. C. M., Festen, D. A. M., & Hermans, H. (2018). Non‐pharmacological interventions for adults with intellectual disabilities and depression: a systematic review. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 62(8), 684-700. 

    Hatton, C., Emerson, E., Robertson, J., & Baines, S. (2017). The mental health of British adults with intellectual impairments living in general households. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 30(1), 188-197. Available online (Accessed: 08/07/19) 

    James, C. and Stacey, M. (2014) ‘The effectiveness of psychodynamic interventions for people with learning disabilities: a systematic review,’ Tizard Learning Disability Review, 19(1): 17-24. 

    Joint Commissioning Panel for Mental Health (2013) Guidance for commissioners of mental health services for people with learning disabilities. Available online (accessed 15/08/2019) 

    Koslowski, N., Klein, K., Arnold, K., Koesters, M., Schuetzwohl, M., Salize, H. J., & Puschner, B. (2016). Effectiveness of interventions for adults with mild to moderate intellectual disabilities and mental health problems: systematic review and meta-analysis. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 209(6), 469-474. 

    Marshall, K. and Ferris, J. (2013) ‘Utilising behavioural family therapy (BFT) to help support the system around a person with intellectual disability and complex mental health needs: a case study,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability, 16(2): 109-118. 

    McCarron, M., Haigh, M., McCallion, P., McCallion, P., Carroll, R., Burke, E., McGlinchey, E., O’Donovan, M.A., McCausland, D., Sheerin, F. and O’Dwyer, M., (2017) Health, Wellbeing and Social Inclusion: Ageing with an Intellectual Disability in Ireland. Dublin: School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin. Available online (Accessed: 08/07/19)  

    National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) (2016). Mental health problems in people with learning disabilities: prevention, assessment and management. Available online (accessed 08/08/19) 

    NHS England (2019) Stopping over medication of people with a learning disability, autism or both (STOMP). Webpage (accessed 08/08/19) 

    Pelleboer-Gunnink, H. A., van Weeghel, J., & Embregts, P. J. (2019). Public stigmatisation of people with intellectual disabilities: a mixed-method population survey into stereotypes and their relationship with familiarity and discrimination. Disability and rehabilitation, 1-9. 

    Perry, B.I., Cooray, S.E., Mendis, J., Purandare, K., Wijeratne, A., Manjubhashini, S., Dasari, M., Esan, F., Gunaratna, I., Naseem, R.A. and Hoare, S., (2018) Problem behaviours and psychotropic medication use in intellectual disability: a multinational cross‐sectional survey. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 62(2), pp.140-149. 

    Royal College of Psychiatrists (2019) Antipsychotics. Webpage (accessed 08/08/19) 

    Stenfert Kroese, B., Willott, S., Taylor, F., Smith, P., Graham, R., Rutter, T., Stott, A. and Willner, P., (2016). Trauma-focussed cognitive-behaviour therapy for people with mild intellectual disabilities: Outcomes of a pilot study. Advances in Mental Health and Intellectual Disabilities, 10(5), pp.299-310. 

    Unwin, G., Tsimopoulou, I., Kroese, B. S., & Azmi, S. (2016). Effectiveness of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programmes for anxiety or depression in adults with intellectual disabilities: A review of the literature. Research in developmental disabilities, 51, 60-75. 

Health inequalities references

  • Ali, A., Scior, K., Ratti, V., Strydom, A., King, M., & Hassiotis, A. (2013). Discrimination and other barriers to accessing health care: perspectives of patients with mild and moderate intellectual disability and their carers. PloS one, 8(8). 

    Allerton, L. and Emerson, E. (2012) ‘British adults with chronic health conditions or impairments face significant barriers to accessing health services,’ Public Health,126: 920- 927. 

    Epilepsy Society (2019) Learning Disabilities. Available online (accessed 05/08/19) 

    Heslop, P., Blair, P., Fleming, P., Hoghton, M., Marriott, A., & Russ, L. (2013). Confidential Inquiry into premature deaths of people with learning disabilities (CIPOLD). Bristol: Norah Fry Research Centre. Available online (accessed 01/07/19)  

    McGrother, C., Bhaumik,S., Thorp, C., Hauck, A., Branford, D. and Watson, J. (2006) ‘Epilepsy in adults with intellectual disabilities: prevalence, associations and service implications,’ Seizure, 15: 376-386. 

    NHS Digital (2019). Health and Care of People with Learning Disabilities: 2017-18. Health and Social Care Information Centre. Available online (accessed 19/06/19) 

    Public Health England (2016). Reasonable adjustments: a legal duty. Available online (accessed 06/08/19) 

    Robertson, J., Hatton, C., Emerson, E., & Baines, S. (2015). Prevalence of epilepsy among people with intellectual disabilities: a systematic review. Seizure, 29, 46-62.  

    Tuffrey-Wijne, I., Giatras, N., Goulding, L., Abraham, E. and Fenwick, L. (2013) ‘Identifying the factors affecting the implementation of strategies to promote a safer environment for patients with learning disabilities in NHS hospitals: a mixed-methods study,’ Health Services and Delivery Research, 1(13). Available online (accessed 05/08/19)  

    University of Bristol Norah Fry Centre for Disability Studies (2019).The Learning Disabilities Mortality Review (LeDeR) Programme: Annual Report 2018. London: Healthcare Improvement Quality Partnership. Available online (accessed 19/06/19)  

Commonly associated health conditions references

  • Bhaumik, S., Watson, J., Thorp, C., Tyrer, F. and McGrother, C. (2008) ‘Body mass index in adults with intellectual disability: distribution, associations and service implications: a population-based prevalence study,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 52 (4): 287-298.
  • Emerson, E. (2005) ‘Underweight, obesity and exercise among adults with intellectual disabilities in supported accommodation in Northern England,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 49(2): 134-143.
  • Gazizova, D., Puri, B. K., Singh, I. and Dhaliwal, R. (2012) ‘The overweight: obesity and plasma lipids in adults with intellectual disability and mental illness,’ Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(9): 895-901.
  • Glover, G., and Ayub, M. (2010) ‘How people with learning disabilities die,’ Improving Health and Lives Learning Disabilities Observatory.
  • Goldstone, A., Thomas, E., Brynes, A., Bell, J., Frost, G., Saeed, N., Hajnal, J., Howard, J., Holland, A. and Bloom, S. (2001). ‘Visceral adipose tissue and metabolic complications of obesity are reduced in Prader-Willi syndrome female adults: evidence for novel influences on body fat distribution,’ The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 86(9): 4330-4338.
  • Joint Epilepsy Council of the UK and Ireland (2011) Epilepsy Prevalence, Incidence and Other Statistics. Available online.
  • McCarron, M., Swinburne, J., Burke, E., McGlinchey, E., Mulryan, N., Andrews, V., Foran, S. and McCallion, P. (2011) Growing Older with an Intellectual Disability in Ireland in 2011: First Results from The Intellectual Disability Supplement of The Irish Longitudian Study on Ageing. School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin. Available online.
  • McGrother, C., Bhaumik,S., Thorp, C., Hauck, A., Branford, D. and Watson, J. (2006) ‘Epilepsy in adults with intellectual disabilities: prevalence, associations and service implications,’ Seizure, 15: 376-386.
  • Phipps, L. (2013) Down's Syndrome and Dementia: what's the Link? Webpage.
  • Pierce, M., Cahill, S. and O'Shea, E. (2014) Prevalence and Projections of Dementia in Ireland, 2011-2046. Available online.
  • Public Health England (2014) Obesity and Disability: Children and Young People.
  • Strydom, A., Chan, T., King, M., Hassiotis, A. and Livingston, G. (2013) ‘Incidence of dementia in older adults with intellectual disabilities,’ Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34: 1881-1885.
  • Glover (2017) Health promotion messages in the Learning Disability Health and Care dataset, year 3 – 2016/17. Webinar. 12th December 2017.
  • NHS Digital (2017) Health and Care of People with Learning Disabilities: Experimental Statistics: 2016 to 2017.

Stigma references

  • Ali, A., Hassiotis, A., Strydom, A., & King, M. (2012). Self stigma in people with intellectual disabilities and courtesy stigma in family carers: A systematic review. Research in developmental disabilities, 33(6), 2122-2140. 

    Anderson, S., & Bigby, C. (2017). Self‐advocacy as a means to positive identities for people with intellectual disability:‘We just help them, be them really’. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 30(1), 109-120. 

    Clarke, R., Camilleri, K., & Goding, L. (2015). What’s in it for me? The meaning of involvement in a self-advocacy group for six people with intellectual disabilities. Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 19(3), 230-250. 

    Dixon, S., Smith, C. & Touchet, A. (2018) The disability perception gap: Policy report. Scope. Available online (accessed 17/05/19) 

    Fenn, K., & Scior, K. (2019). The psychological and social impact of self‐advocacy group membership on people with intellectual disabilities: A literature review. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 

    IoE London (2014) Research Summary: Are Disabled Children and Young People at Higher Risk of being bullied? Available online (accessed 16/08/19) 

    Lawson, J. E., Cruz, R. A., & Knollman, G. A. (2017). Increasing positive attitudes toward individuals with disabilities through community service learning. Research in developmental disabilities, 69, 1-7. 

    Li, C., Wu, Y., & Ong, Q. (2014). Enhancing attitudes of college students towards people with intellectual disabilities through a coursework intervention. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 26(6), 793-803. 

    MacMillan, M., Tarrant, M., Abraham, C., & Morris, C. (2014). The association between children's contact with people with disabilities and their attitudes towards disability: a systematic review. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 56(6), 529-546. 

    NHS Digital (2018) Measures from the Adult Social Care Outcomes Framework: England 2017-18, Final Release. Available online (accessed 29/04/19).  

    ONS (2019) Labour market overview, UK: May 2019 (Statistical Bulletin). Available online (accessed 15/05/19).  

    Pelleboer-Gunnink, H. A., van Weeghel, J., & Embregts, P. J. (2019). Public stigmatisation of people with intellectual disabilities: a mixed-method population survey into stereotypes and their relationship with familiarity and discrimination. Disability and rehabilitation, 1-9. 

    Scior, K., & Werner, S. (2015). Changing attitudes to learning disability. London: MencapAvailable online (accessed 16/08/19) 

    Seewooruttun, L., & Scior, K. (2014). Interventions aimed at increasing knowledge and improving attitudes towards people with intellectual disabilities among lay people. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 35(12), 3482-3495. 

    United Nations (2006) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). Geneva: United Nations. 

How common is learning disability references

  • Office for National Statistics (2019) Estimates of the population for the UK, England and Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Available online
  • Public Health England (2016). Learning disabilities Observatory. People with learning disabilities in England 2015. Available online